0x - The nomenclature "0x"
is used to indicate hexadecimal numerical values. Hexadecimal
is a base 16 numbering system. Hexadecimal values are easy to
translate into 4 bit binary values. Here is an example:
|HEXADECIMAL VALUE||DECIMAL VALUE||OCTAL VALUE||BINARY VALUE|
Calculator programs like the MS Calculator in Scientific view can convert between Hexadecimal, Octal, Decimal and Binary number bases.
Alternate Control Module - This is a style of mode select control head with push button mode selectors.
Binary - Binary is a base 2 numbering system. Digits 0 and 1 are used to represent binary values. Binary is most often used by computers, in this case as the Syntor X micro-computer or Syntor X 9000 micro-computers.
CEPT - Conference for European Postal Telecommunications administrations. This has to do with specific European compliance issues.
CH - This is an abbreviation for Control Head.
Clamshell Control Head - This is a style of mode select control head with a rotary mode selector.
Code Plug - Your program with all the frequencies and information that you save inside the radio (i.e. Rx and Tx frequencies, Rx and Tx PL/DPL, scan modes, Tx timeout timer, etc.).
Common Circuits Board - The Syntor X printed circuit board which contains the radio's audio portion of the transmitter modulation circuits, transmitter protection, receiver squelch and voltage regulators. The Syntor X 9000 circuit board is similar except it does not have any transmit audio circuits and it added an unswitched 5 volt regulator.
Conventional - Conventional radios are the traditional radios. They allow simplex or duplex (i.e. repeater) communications. Conventional radios are less complex than trunking radios. However, conventional radios allow greater interoperability with other conventional radio systems (i.e. there are no problems with incompatible trunking formats to prevent communications). Also see Trunking.
COR - Carrier Operated Relay. It may also be called COS for Carrier Operated Switch. This is a control used by repeaters. When the repeater receiver detects any signal, it asserts the COR as an output to send to a repeater controller. The repeater controller can use this signal to decide when to turn the repeater transmitter on.
CSQ - Carrier SQuelch. When used in the context of received signals, this means the PL or DPL is not present in the received signal or is being ignored if present. When used in the context of transmitted signals this means no PL or DPL is being encoded and transmitted (this is also know as transmitting clear). CSQ, PL and DPL are the three different types operation for the receiver or transmitter.
CTCSS - Continuous Tone Coded Sub-audible Squelch. This the generic version of Motorola's Private Line (see PL for more details).
Decimal - Decimal is a base 10 numbering system. This is the numbering most people use and work with on a day to day basis. It is not easy to convert to binary.
DEK - Direct Entry Keyboard. This is a Systems 9000 accessory to add additional keys to the control head stack. This can be used to control a Syntor X 9000 radio or its accessories.
DCS - Digital Coded Squelch. This the generic version of Motorola's Digital Private Line (see DPL for more details).
Digital Private Line - See DPL.
Digital Voice Protection - See DVP.
DE-EMPHASIS - See EMPHASIS.
DPL - Digital Private Line. Motorola's trade mark name for DCS. Similar to PL and CTCSS, except a continuous sub-audible digital code is substituted for the continuous fixed frequency sub-audible audio tone. The digital code consists of 3 octal digits of 3 bits each. This means each of the three individual DPL digits can be from 0 to 7 allowing codes from 000 to 777 to be programmed (not all of these codes are usable). CSQ, PL and DPL are the three different types operation for the receiver or transmitter.
DIP - Dual In-line Package. Integrated circuit chips that use two rows of long through hole pins on 1/10 inch spacing. The packages are rectangular with pins on two opposite sides. These are larger and easer to work with than newer SMD integrated circuit chips. DIP components may be placed in a socket or soldered directly to the PC board.
DOS - This one has two meanings. One is Disk Operating System and the other is Data Operated Squelch. Disk Operating System applies to the PC operating system know as MS-DOS. Data Operated Squelch refers to a type of squelch muting when receiving data.
DRAM - Dynamic Random Access Memory. This is an erasable, volatile data storage memory chip. Also see RAM and SRAM. The term dynamic means this RAM needs intervention from a controller to refresh what has been stored in it so it will not forget and it will forget everything if it looses power.
DVP - Digital Voice Protection. Motorola's voice encryption system. See this page for further details.
DVP XL - Digital Voice Protection XL. A more advanced version of Motorola's voice encryption system.
EEPROM - Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. This is an erasable, non-volatile data storage memory chip. It is erased and reprogrammed while it is connected to external circuitry and is powered up. It can be programmed many times. Also see ROM, PROM and EPROM.
EMPHASIS - Emphasis refers to receiver audio de-emphasis and transmit audio pre-emphasis. Emphasis is used for noise reduction when transmitting voice FM modulated signals. Pre-emphasis is used by the transmitter to essentially amplify the treble and reduces the base in the audio bandwidth. De-emphasis is used by the receiver to undo the pre-emphasis of a transmitted signal and make it sound normal again. The ambient RF noise picked up after transmission tends to be the higher audio frequencies that are significantly reduced when the receiver attenuates these high frequencies during de-emphasis. Almost all voice FM communications radios commonly use this technique. The EIA emphasis standard is 6 dB/octave. PL and DPL signals are not emphasized. Emphasis tends to distort data when used with high speed modems (especially 9600 baud modems), so neither one is used for fast data modes.
EOM - End Of Message. This is a signal used to close the receiver squelch. For example: the Advanced Securenet uses a Tx 6 KHz audio tone for about 180 milliseconds to close the Rx squelch. DPL uses a Tx 130 Hz tone to close the Rx squelch. Motorola PL reverse burst uses a Tx 120 degree phase shift for 180 milliseconds to close the Rx squelch (everyone else uses 180 degrees for 150 milliseconds, so Motorola PL reverse burst usually only works with Motorola radios).
EPROM - Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. This is an erasable, non-volatile data storage memory chip. It is usually erased by removing the memory chip from its circuit and exposing the window to intense ultra violet light. It can be programmed many times. Also see ROM, PROM and EEPROM.
EXTENDER - This is only found in low band radios (it is standard in Syntor X and Syntor X 9000 low band radios). It is a very fancy noise blanker. It uses a second AM noise receiver tapped directly from the receiver preamplifier output. It is tuned with a simple wide bandwidth filter (jumper configured for 29.7 to 40 MHz or 39 to 50 MHz, and tuned with L300, L301. L302 and C321). Do not confuse Motorola's "Extender" with GE's vehicle repeater which GE calls an "Extender".
FIRMWARE - Firmware is a microcomputer program usually stored on a memory chip.
FLAT AUDIO - Flat refers to audio that is not being emphasized or bandwidth filtered. In the receiver flat means no de-emphasis is applied to the audio. In the transmitter flat means no pre-emphasis is applied to the audio. The lack of bandwidth filtering makes this a high bandwidth audio connection.
Hand Held Control Head (HHCH) - This is an optional hand held control head / microphone combination. The Syntor X requires modifications to use a HHCH. These control heads can be setup to control 2 Syntor X or Syntor X 9000 radios with special interface hardware.
Hexadecimal - See 0x above.
HUB (Hang Up Box) - Depending on the radio model this may be a physical piece of hardware with a monitor slide switch (Syntor / Syntor X) that the microphone rests in or it may be as simple as a button on the back of the microphone or a grounded microphone clip (Syntor X 9000). Its function is to detect when you pick up the microphone to use it. This is typically used to defeat (i.e. turn off) any receiver decoded PL or DPL squelch. The intent is to allow the operator to hear anyone else that may already using the frequency with a different PL/DPL so the operator will not transmit at the same time and interfere with them. HUB can be used to refer to the physical hang up box, the connections used to interface it with the radio or just the receive decoded PL/DPL disable function.
IDC - Instant Deviation Control. This is the identifier Motorola uses for the circuitry associated with the transmitter voice deviation (i.e. FM modulation). It includes the deviation limiter and SPLATTER filter.
IF - Intermediate Frequency. This is an abbreviation for a fixed frequency radio frequency amplifier in the receiver. These amplifiers are located after the circuits that tune the radio to the desired receiver frequency.
LED - Light Emitting Diode. These devices have many uses, however the most common use is as a common light bulb or lamp replacement. Because LEDs are solid state electronic devices and not incandescent filaments, they have a much longer life expectancy than a common light bulb.
MODE - The Syntor X and Syntor X 9000 use the term mode instead of channel. The reason they give is the channel selector on these radios do so much more than just select the operating frequency, that the term channel is not sufficient to describe this control's operation. On these radios the mode selector also selects PL, DPL, scan parameters, enable or disable options, etc.
MPL - Multiple Private Line. This term is used to refer to the programmable operator select PL/DPL. This control lets the operator select multiple PL/DPL codes.
NLA - No Longer Available. This abbreviation is often used to refer to parts that are no longer sold by Motorola. Often, Motorola was the only available source for the parts.
Octal - Octal is a base 8 numbering system. Octal is used in DPL/DCS codes. Digits 0 through 7 are used to represent octal values (i.e. 7 octal is 7 decimal, 10 octal is 8 decimal, and 472 octal is 314 decimal). Octal digits are very easy to convert into 3 bit binary. Here is an example:
|OCTAL VALUE||DECIMAL VALUE||BINARY VALUE|
Because octal only uses digits 0 through 7 it makes DPL/DCS
codes look like this example:
110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124 ... etc.
Since one octal digit is three binary bits long each of the above DPL/DCS example codes represents 9 bits total (3 octal digits in each code). Calculator programs like the MS Calculator in Scientific view can convert between Hexadecimal, Octal, Decimal and Binary number bases. For example 117 octal is 79 decimal.
PAC-PL - The PAC-PL is the same as the PAC-RT described below, except it has no priority resolution ability to prevent multiple mobile radios in close proximity to each other from interfering with each other.
PAC-RT - The PAC-RT is a low power simplex radio that is attached to a Syntor, Syntor X or Syntor X 9000 mobile radio and it will repeat to and from a mobile radio inside a vehicle to a handheld radio carried outside the vehicle. They are available in the VHF or UHF band. A VHF VRS will be used with a UHF Syntor X 9000 and a UHF VRS will be used with a VHF Syntor X 9000 (this is called cross band repeat). A low band Syntor X can use either a VHF or UHF PAC-RT. PAC-RT has a priority resolution ability to prevent multiple mobile radios in close proximity to each other from interfering with each other (also see VRS).
PC Board - Printed Circuit Board. These are the boards the individual electronics components are soldered to or mounted on. These boards have copper traces to connect the components and make complete circuits.
Personality Board - The Syntor X printed circuit board which contains the radio's microprocessor, memory module, J1 cable connector, PL/DPL encoder/decoder, optional DVP Interface Board and the receiver audio section. Also the Syntor X 9000 printed circuit board which consists of the radio's microprocessor, memory, J1 cable connector, PL/DPL encoder/decoder, transmit audio circuits, holds the internal optional boards and the receiver audio section.
PL - Private Line. Motorola's trade mark name for CTCSS. A continuous fixed frequency audio tone in the range of 67 Hz to 255 Hz is used to open the receiver squelch. These tones are called sub-audible because communications receivers use 300 Hz to 3000 Hz for voice communications. CSQ, PL and DPL are the three different types operation for the receiver or transmitter.
PLCC - This stands for Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier. These components look like SMD components, except they are usually placed in a socket instead of being soldered to a PC board. They have pins on all sides of the chip and one corner of the chip is cut off so it can be keyed to only fit one way, right side up, into the socket. They can also be surface mount soldered to a PC board.
PRE-EMPHASIS - See EMPHASIS.
Private Line - See PL.
PROM - Programmable Read Only Memory. This is an unerasable, non-volatile data storage memory chip. It can be programed one time after it is purchased. Also see ROM, EPROM and EEPROM.
PTT - Push To Talk. This is the button on the microphone that is pressed to make the radio transmit.
RAM - Random Access Memory. This is an erasable, volatile data storage memory chip. RAM is a generic name for all types of RAM. Also see DRAM and SRAM.
RAS - Receive Audio Shaping. This is Motorola's name for the receiver audio de-emphasis and filtering. The filtering is used to remove PL and DPL (both are below 300 Hz) from the audio before it is sent to the speaker. Depending on the radio model it may also filter the audio bandwidth to pass frequencies from about 300 Hz to about 3000 Hz.
RIB - Radio Interface Box. This is an RS-422 to RS-232 level converter with additional handshake control lines. It is the essential programming bridge between the RSS computer RS-232 COM port and the Syntor X 9000 radio/control head. Special cables are required to connect the RIB to the computer and radio.
ROM - Read Only Memory. This is an unerasable, non-volatile data storage memory chip. It must be programed by the factory. Also see PROM, EPROM and EEPROM.
RSS - Radio Service Software. This is Motorola's software for programming their radios. This software runs under the original 16 bit MS DOS. The newer software (only available for some radios) that runs under MS Windows is called CPS. Please see the http://www.batlabs.com/ web site for more details.
RSSI - Receive Signal Strength Indicator. For the conventional radios with the A4, A5, A7 or A9 control head, when the RSSI key is pressed and the squelch is not open "NOSAMPLE" is displayed. When a signal is being received a numeric value between 0 and 128 is displayed. This value roughly corresponds to how strong the signal and noise is in the radios' receiver. RSSI settings are also used for programming trunking radios.
Securenet - Motorola's digital voice encryption system. See this page for further details.
SIU - System Interface Unit. Used when two Syntor X 9000 or Spectra radio drawers are controlled by a single Hand Held Control Head (HHCH). A different version is also used by some Syntor X radios.
SMD - Surface Mount Device flat package components. These electronic components mount on top of the PC board rather than using holes through the board. They may be square or rectangular with pins on 2 sides or all 4 sides. They are usually small and much harder to work with and repair then older DIP and axial lead components. SMD components are very easy to damage by overheating when soldering and may require special solder. SMD components are not placed in sockets (see PLCC), they are only soldered.
SMT - Surface Mount Technology. This is a descriptive name for the technology the SMD components are based on. Sometimes it is also used to refer to an individual component.
SPLATTER - Splatter refers to the noise generated by transmitter deviation limiters. The limiter will clip any audio input that attempts to over deviate the transmitter. This clipping produces high frequency noise above 3000 Hz called splatter which must be filter out by the splatter filter.
SRAM - Static Random Access Memory. This is an erasable, volatile data storage memory chip. Also see DRAM and RAM. The term static means this RAM does not need any intervention to remember what has been stored in it, but it will forget everything if it looses power.
System 90 - This is Motorola's name for a family of radio accessory products, most of which will work with the Syntor and Syntor X. These accessories are connected to the radio's cable.
System 90*s - This is Motorola's name for a newer family of radio accessory products which work with the Syntor and Syntor X. These accessories are connected to the radio's cable.
Talkaround - This is Motorola's name for a method of talking around a repeater. For example, if your radio has 8 duplex repeater modes it would also have 8 simplex Talkaround modes programmed to operate on each repeater's output frequency respectively. This allows stations close to each other to talk to each other without tying up the repeater and they both can still hear the repeater in case they are called by any another stations using the repeater. The real significance is Talkaround control heads actually have double the number of modes indicated (i.e. an 8 mode Talkaround control head actually has 16 modes with a "Repeater - Direct" or "R - D" labeled bank switch).
Trunking - Trunking radios are remotely controlled by special link, usually called a control channel. Among other things, this trunking control link usually tells the trunking mobile radio when it can open its squelch, when it has permission to transmit, what frequencies to use and when to use which frequencies. The control link is computer based and the mobile radio has a compatible computer built into it. Different manufactures have different trunking schemes. Trunking schemes have changed and evolved in both features and complexity over time, even from a single manufacturer. Even though trunking is used as a generic term, in reality there are many different types of trunking systems that are totally incompatible with each another (even from the same manufacturer). Trunking radio systems can allow different groups (i.e. police and fire, etc.) to share the same trunking radio system, yet have their radio traffic automatically separated. Trunking radio systems can make much more efficient use of multiple repeaters by automatically sharing the radio traffic load between them. Trunking systems are complex and their use is usually limited to radios that have been specifically setup to work with that particular trunking system. Some trunking radios also allow conventional modes to be programmed (sometimes only a very limited number of conventional modes). Also see Conventional.
VCO - Voltage Controlled Oscillator. This the oscillator that is controlled by the radio's built in synthesizer to provide the receive and transmit frequencies.
VIP - Vehicle Interface Port. The VIP is a Systems 9000 control head interface to a vehicle's horn, lights, dash light dimmer circuit, etc. This allows a Syntor X 9000 to integrate itself with the vehicle somewhat.
VPA - Voice Privacy Adaptor. A simple voice scrambling scheme. See this page for further details.
VRS - Vehicle Repeater System. The VRS is a low power simplex radio that is attached to a Syntor X 9000 mobile radio and programmed to repeat to and from a mobile radio inside a vehicle to a handheld radio carried outside the vehicle. They are available in the VHF or UHF band. A VHF VRS will be used with a UHF Syntor X 9000 and a UHF VRS will be used with a VHF Syntor X 9000 (this is called cross band repeat). A low band Syntor X 9000 can use either a VHF or UHF VRS. The VRS has a priority resolution ability to prevent multiple mobile radios in close proximity to each other from interfering with each other (also see PAC-RT).
PL, Private Line, DPL, Digital Private Line, MPL, Talkaround, MDC-600, MDC-1200, MVS-20, Securenet, Smartnet, Privacy Plus, Trunked X2, Trunked X3, Touch Code, Quick Call II, Channel Scan, Talkback Scan, System 90, System 90*s, Systems 9000, Mitrek, Micor, Spectra, MataTrac, Syntor, Syntor X, Syntor X 9000 and Syntor X 9000E are trademarks of Motorola Inc.