|- SYSTEMS 9000|
|- Systems 9000 Introduction|
|- Systems 9000 Control Head Configurations|
|- Systems 9000 Rear Control Head Configurations|
|- Systems 9000 Securenet Physical Security Housing Configurations|
|- Systems 9000 Housings Configurations|
|- Systems 9000 SIU Dual Radio Configurations|
|- Systems 9000 Control Head Dual Radio Configurations|
|- Syntor X 9000 Home|
Systems 9000 Introduction:
Except for the HCN1032, the Systems 9000 label found on the control heads and some accessories/options describes a special serial data bus used by the conventional Syntor X 9000, trunking Syntor X 9000E, Spectra, Spectra II and Astro Spectra mobile radios.
The Systems 9000 serial data bus is 9600 baud, differential, bidirectional, asynchronous serial data communication with a single ended bidirectional busy line added (the busy line is not part of any commonly used serial data specification RS-232, RS-422 or RS-485 etc.). This becomes Bus+, Bus-, Busy and ground lines inside the radio's cable. Differential signals require a pair of wires (i.e. Bus+ and Bus-), single ended signals only require a single wire (i.e. Busy) and they all need a ground reference (i.e. ground). In addition, inside the Radio Drawer, Control Head, Siren/PA, External Options Housing, VRS and Physical Security Securenet Housing, the serial bus is changed slightly. The internal version of this bus is single ended (i.e. not differential) and directional (i.e. not bidirectional). It consists of a single ended directional Rx, single ended directional Tx, asynchronous 9600 baud serial communication, with a single ended directional Busy In line and a single ended directional Busy Out line. This becomes Rx Data, Tx Data, Busy In, Busy Out and ground lines for this internal bus version. The internal single ended directional Rx and Tx lines are combined and converted back into differential bidirectional Bus+ and Bus- lines before they get to the radio's cable. The single ended directional Busy Out and Busy In lines are converted back into a single ended bidirectional Busy line before they get to the radio's cable.
According to one Motorola manual the bus is RS-422, however this is not correct. The Bus+ and Bus- configuration more closely resembles a half duplex RS-485 system. The main difference from RS-485, besides the Busy line, is the Bus+ and Bus- bus drivers. In a RS-485 network the Bus+ and Bus- lines are actively driven for both a logic 0 and logic 1 state. A RS-485 bus can also be placed in a high impedance state (i.e. electrically disconnected from the bus). The Systems 9000 Bus+ and Bus- are passively held in an idle state by pull up and pull down resistors, not actively driven. The other Systems 9000 logic state is actively driven and reversed from the pull up and pull down resistors. The Systems 9000 bus has no high impedance state as the pull up and pull down resistors are part of each node in the network. This type of bus driver more closely, not exactly, resembles a modern Controller Area Network (CAN) bus which is known as a dominate/recessive bus network. Dominate and recessive states can also be called active and passive with respect to the driver output levels. If you connect a RS-422 or RS-485 bus driver to a Systems 9000 bus it can produce a short circuit whenever the Systems 9000 bus is driven to its active state while the RS-485 driver is turned on. It appears that a CAN bus driver chip (especially one with controlled slew rate), connected correctly (CANH to Bus+ and CANL to Bus-), would connect to a Systems 9000 bus without any short circuit problems (another possibility for home made RIBs).
Basically, the differential bidirectional Bus+ and Bus- data lines are used to carry the Systems 9000 serial data stream throughout the entire radio system. Because these Bus+ and Bus- signals are differential, it makes them very immune to interference noise that may get mixed in with the serial data. They are bidirectional because any microprocessor attached to the Bus+ and Bus- lines can use them for either serial data input or serial data output. The actual serial data is generated by one of the microprocessors on a Tx Data directional transmit line that is interfaced to send its data out on the bidirectional Bus+ and Bus- data lines. Then this Bus+ and Bus- serial data is converted back into a Rx Data directional receive line, so all the microprocessors can read the data. The Busy line is used to help prevent more than one microprocessor at a time from sending serial data. When two or more microprocessors send serial data at the same time it is called a collision. A collision will scramble the serial data making it unusable, so only one microprocessor at a time is allowed to send serial data (i.e. each microprocessor has to use the Busy line to successfully arbitrate for control of the serial bus before sending any serial data). The Busy line is also used to communicate an acknowledge type of signal between the sender and receiving nodes.
If you are looking to extend a Systems 9000 radio cable beyond the long 100 foot cable that Motorola has done (the longest special cable I have heard of), keep in mind you are dealing with serial network cabling. Read up on RS-485 network cabling theory to understand the basics. Because of the dominate/recessive nature of the Systems 9000 bus, you should also read up on CAN network cabling theory (CAN may be a better guideline for maximum cabling lengths than RS-485). Keep in mind you also have a busy line that is part of the network and does not have differential wire pairs with their common mode noise rejection characteristics (i.e. the busy line is much more susceptible to picking up noise and radiating noise in long wires). Motorola shielded the Bus+, Bus- and Busy wires to help solve some of the noise problems, which you will not see in standard network wiring. Finally, remember that the Systems 9000 bus drivers are not RS-422 or RS-485 compatible, in fact the radio and or control head could possibly be damaged by connecting them to standard RS-422/RS-485 drivers. Really long runs may also pick up induced voltage spikes, transfer them into the radio system and cause damage. So, if you are a hobbyist and do not care about reliability, radiated noise or possible damage to the radio, go ahead and cobble up whatever extension cable you can get to work. If you do care about any of these issues, realize it is difficult to do it correctly.
Here is a schematic example of the serial data path:
Here is a schematic example of the Busy line path:
The Radio Drawer, Control Head, Siren/PA, VRS and Internal Option Boards all have their own built in microprocessors. The Systems 9000 serial data bus allows any of the microprocessors attached to the bus, to receive serial data sent by any other microprocessor attached to the bus. In addition, any of the microprocessors can arbitrate for control of the bus (only one at a time can control the bus). First the Busy Out is checked to make sure the serial data bus is not busy, if it is not busy the Busy In line is held in the active state while the microprocessor controls the bus, and then it can send serial data on the serial data bus. The Busy In line is dropped after the serial data has been sent. This is a half duplex system where you can only have one serial data talker at a time while all the others listen. Each bus talker reads back its own serial data as it sends it, to detect data collisions when the Busy line arbitration fails and 2 or more talkers send serial data at the same time. The Busy line arbitration will fail when two or more different microprocessors check the Busy line status and then set the Busy line active at virtually the exact same moment. This why the data collision detection is necessary, even with the Busy line. Collisions mean the serial data must be sent again, after another Busy line arbitration which creates a less efficient bus (i.e. it looses valuable time resending the data). However, the presence of the Busy line arbitration hardware does prevent lots of other possible data collisions and helps the Systems 9000 bus run more efficiently with optimal real time response availability.
The Systems 9000 serial data is only used to control the radio's functions and there is no digitized audio on the Systems 9000 bus. One example of a control function is when the radio operator presses the microphone Push To Talk (PTT). There is no dedicated wire in the cable between the control head and radio for PTT. Instead, a serial data command is sent from the control head to the radio to tell the radio's microprocessor the microphone PTT has been pressed. Other control functions include examples like configuring the Rx and Tx audio paths shown here, using these Systems 9000 serial data commands. So, when an optional Securenet board needs access to Tx path 3 to transmit encrypted audio, it sends a special serial data command to configure this special Tx modulation path (Tx paths 1, 2 and the Tx PL/DPL encoder are turned off). When the same optional Securenet board needs send the decrypted Rx audio to the speaker, it will send the serial command to configure the Rx path to use the decrypted pin 33 Option Audio instead of the encrypted pin 2 Detected Audio.
The Systems 9000 serial data bus actually ties a bunch of different microprocessors together so they can coordinate their activities and make all the different parts of the entire radio system work. The bus is also how the radio finds out when an External Option (i.e. Siren/PA, VRS, Physical Security Housing Securenet, etc.) or Internal Option Board that has been programmed into the radio's code plug, is missing or not working. If you look at the Fail and Error Code Prefixes table, notice how each prefix code is really like a unique address for different parts of the radio system. I suspect the Systems 9000 serial data bus uses these prefix codes to address different parts of the radio system. So, the Syntor X 9000 can actually be described as a collection of microprocessors working together through the Systems 9000 serial data bus to control the entire radio system.
When you attach the programming computer and RIB to the Systems 9000 bus, the programming computer that runs the RSS also becomes part of this radio system serial data network. The RIB has circuits that convert the Systems 9000 bidirectional Bus+ and Bus- serial data into directional RS-232 serial data and to convert the bidirectional Busy line into directional RS-232 handshake signal lines. The RS-232 Data Terminal Ready (DTR) handshake line is used by the RSS computer to set the Busy line active when writing serial data to the Systems 9000 bus. The RS-232 Clear To Send (CTS) and Ring Indicator (RI) handshake lines are used by the Systems 9000 bus to tell the RSS computer that serial data is being sent on the Systems 9000 bus (i.e. the Busy line is active) by one of the radio system microprocessors. These RIB RS-232 handshake signals are only used when programming some radio models, like the conventional Syntor X 9000. These RS-232 handshake signals allow the RSS computer to arbitrate for control of the Systems 9000 bus (i.e. read the state of the Busy line and to hold the Busy line active while sending serial data to the radio system). These RS-232 handshake lines are not built into some aftermarket RIBs, so these particular non-factory RIBs will not work with any Systems 9000 radio.
In addition to the serial data bus, there is also a bidirectional Reset line. Because this line is bidirectional (i.e. it is both an input and output to each microprocessor), any microprocessor or its hardware can generate and send a reset on it, which will cause all the microprocessors to be reset together. The RSS programming computer is the exception that is not connected to the reset line. Whenever the radio power is turned on, the Reset line is used to automatically send out a reset. Because all the microprocessors in the radio system reset together, they can exchange special startup information one time only, immediately after a reset. Allowing extra time for both radio drawers to reset and exchange their startup information is what the dual radio SP04 control head is all about. When an option is programmed into the radio code plug (i.e. Siren/PA, VRS, Securenet, etc.), the radio system will expect to receive the option's startup information after the reset. If this startup information is not received within an allotted time limit, an error code is displayed on the control head. Typically the cause of the error is the option is physically missing, problems with the cabling, the option may need repair or the option board addressing is jumpered incorrectly (i.e. an option in a single radio system is jumpered for a dual radio system or an option in a dual radio system is not jumpered for the correct primary or secondary radio).
The Radio Drawer and Control Head Systems 9000 microprocessors use a circuit called a watchdog timer. The watchdog timer is kind of like a ticking doomsday clock. If the microprocessor does not keep resetting the watchdog and and preventing it from counting all the way down, it will generate a reset to all the microprocessors with the Reset line. The watchdog is really a safety net that allows a microprocessor to self correct some types of software bugs in the radio's firmware. It is based on the assumption that the microprocessor must still be operating correctly as long as its program can keep resetting the watchdog timer to prevent the radio system reset. If a watchdog timer has a component failure (especially the electrolytic capacitor in the control head used for its watchdog timing) it can become a big problem that will prevent the entire radio from operating.
Just because the conventional Syntor X 9000, trunking Syntor X 9000E, Spectra, Spectra II and Astro Spectra mobile radios all use the Systems 9000 bus, it does not mean they can all use the same Systems 9000 control heads and Systems 9000 accessories/options. Some radio models use different command codes than others. Some radio's microprocessor firmware does not support some accessories/options. The Systems 9000 label is not a guarantee of compatibility, it just means they use the same type of bus to communicate (except for the previously mentioned HCN1032). One example is the newer control heads (sometime around the HCN1045B model introduction) had new features added to them and are called Systems 9000E compatible. Systems 9000E compatibility does not affect the Syntor X 9000, but the Spectra/Spectra II does require a Systems 9000E compatible control head. There is nothing on any Systems 9000 control head labels to indicate which ones are Systems 9000E compatible and which ones are not. Another incompatibility example is the remote mount Spectra A7 or A5 control head with the HLN6432 Systems 9000 cable converter board. It can physically be connected to a Syntor X 9000, but it can possibly be damaged by doing so and the alphanumeric mode name selection interface is coded in a completely different and incompatible manner than a Syntor X 9000 (this is known because an A9 head on an A7 Spectra radio only displays gibberish for the mode names). The damage is possible because the Syntor X 9000 radio drawer draws power through the control head fused green wire and a mechanical switch, while the Spectra radio drawer does not draw any power through the control head fused green wire and has a less robust electronic solid state switch instead of a more robust mechanical switch. It would also be impossible to program an A5 or A7 head on a Syntor X 9000.
The Hand Held Control Head (HHCH) is not a Systems 9000 control head. It requires the System Interface Unit (SIU) hardware to connect it to a Systems 9000 bus. The SIU translates the HHCH serial data into Systems 9000 serial data that is compatible with the Syntor X 9000 serial data connection and commands. FYI, the Syntor X with the internal HLN4728 HHCH interface board, the MaraTrac and the Spectra with the internal HHCH MLM & HHCH interface boards are the only radios I am aware of that connect directly to the HHCH without an SIU (the Astro Spectra has its own exclusive, unique, HHCH that is entirely different from all previous HHCH models and is not covered/discussed anywhere on this web site).
When you see the Bus+, Bus-, Busy, Reset and ground lines in a cable, you are looking at the heart of the Systems 9000 external connections. The Rx Data, Tx Data, Busy Out, Busy In, Reset and ground lines are the heart of the Systems 9000 internal connections.
Systems 9000 Control Head Configurations:
See the Control Head page for Systems 9000 control head part numbers. The Control Head may be attached to the Radio Drawer with one of a variety of cable lengths (HKN4240A, HKN4241A and HKN4242A) or a special cable (HKN4256A) used when a Securenet Internal Option Board is installed inside the Radio Drawer. See the control head cable pin out for the orange and green wire description. The Control Head can have up to two optional Direct Entry Keyboards (DEK). Each DEK is attached with a HKN4273A cable (also know as a 30-80248L01). The DEK is not a Systems 9000 bus device (it is a Systems 9000 Accessory) and even though the connector looks like a control head connector, it can only work when attached to the Systems 9000 bus through a Systems 9000 control head. The Vehicle Interface Port (VIP) connectors are different for a control head than for a DEK. Each VIP or VIP II connection has 3 programmable inputs and 3 programmable outputs. Two DEKs can have a total of 6 programmable inputs and 6 programmable outputs.
|VIP and VIP II Pin Outs|
VIP II Pins
|4||15||VIP In 1|
|3||16||VIP In 2|
|37||17||VIP In 3|
|2||43||VIP Out 1|
|1||44||VIP Out 2|
|34||45||VIP Out 3|
Systems 9000 Rear Control Head Configurations:
HCN1071 is the model number for the Systems 9000 rear control head. The power slide switch on the bottom of the rear control head is locked in the on position. The Control Head may be attached to the Radio Drawer using one of a variety of T-cable lengths (YKN4192A, HKN4376B and YKN4205A - there are other lengths I do not have the part numbers for). There are no orange or green wires on a rear control head T-cable.
Special relay pods along with VIP programming are used to switch between the front and rear speakers. The relay pod plugs into the VIP or VIP II port and the radio cable speaker connector. The speaker plugs into the relay pod. The VIP output that is connected to the speaker transfer relay pod must be programmed for "SPEAKER POD" with the control head RSS. Both the front and the rear control heads have their own speaker and speaker transfer relay pod.
I am not sure, but I assume up to two optional DEKs can also be added to the rear head.
Systems 9000 Securenet Physical Security Housing Configurations:
The Physical Security Housing may be attached to the Radio Drawer with one of two different lengths of cables (HKN4289A and HKN4293A). The Control Head may be attached to the Physical Security Housing with one of three different lengths of cables (HKN4290A, HKN4292A, HKN6059A and HKN6060A). The last two cables are a later Advanced Securenet design that is also used with the Spectra Physical Security Housing. The blue wire from the Physical Security Housing should be fused and then connected to the battery + voltage. Unless the Securenet Battery Option is installed, the Securenet encryption key or keys will be erased if power is removed from the blue wire.
Systems 9000 Housings Configurations:
This drawing below should be clearer than just a written description.
All of the above Siren/PA, VRS, VRS & Siren/PA Combination and External Options Housings are based on the same main circuit board. This circuit board is inside the Systems 9000 Housing and holds the connector that the cable plugs into. The Siren/PA and VRS & Siren/PA Combination versions of this circuit board have a complete set of components soldered into the circuit board and a large heat sink is on the rear of the housing. The VRS and External Options Housing versions of this circuit board only have a minimum number of components soldered into the circuit board with no heat sink on the rear of the housing. The VRS and VRS & Siren/PA Combination housings have an additional VRS circuit board added above this main circuit board and a RF connector for the VRS antenna on the front of the housing. Even though the same main circuit board is used, each version has its own unique part number. In fact, the same main circuit board is used for the MaraTrac Siren/PA, but this version of the board has many critical component changes that prevent it from ever being used on a Systems 9000 bus.
When the VRS or VRS & Siren/PA Combination is used with any other Systems 9000 Housing, the VRS or VRS & Siren/PA Combination must be cabled to the Radio Drawer first (as shown above).
A separate VRS and Siren/PA can be made into a single VRS & Siren/PA Combination unit with this low profile shield, some rewiring and putting the housing pieces back together differently. The finished conversion will result in one VRS & Siren/PA Combination and one External Options Housing.
The Radio Drawer, Siren/PA and External Options Housings can accommodate up to 2 Internal Option Boards. The Radio Drawer is the only one that can use the optional HKN4256A cable with the Securenet keyport loader connector. Because of this, the Securenet Internal Option Boards do not work in the Siren/PA or External Options Housings. The Securenet Internal Option Board is usually installed in the Radio Drawer or Securenet Physical Security Housing, if it is installed at all.
Systems 9000 SIU Dual Radio Configurations:
The SIU connects to the primary Physical Security Housing with a YKN4238A cable and secondary Physical Security Housing with a YKN4238A cable. Each Physical Security Housing may be attached to the Radio Drawer with one of two different lengths of cables (HKN4289A and HKN4293A). There are also a host of cables and options that are not Systems 9000 for the HHCH, optional DTMF pad, optional advanced Securenet Switchbox, optional Siren/PA Switchbox and optional Signaling Switchbox. There are also some special dual radio Internal Option Boards. Any Internal Option Boards with JU1, JU2, JU3, JU101, JU102 or JU103 jumpers must be correctly setup for the Radio Drawer they are installed in. The VRS is not compatible with any dual radio system. If the Siren/PA is installed, it must be cabled to the primary Radio Drawer. There is no such thing as a rear HHCH. The UHF radio connector must be plugged into the top position (RADIO 1) of the SIU and the VHF radio must be plugged into the middle connector (RADIO 2) of the SIU.
Systems 9000 Control Head Dual Radio Configurations:
The Control Head is just like the regular installation above and is plugged into the dual radio YKN4214A T-cable connector on the primary Radio Drawer. The dual radio YKN4214A T-cable is plugged into the primary Radio Drawer and the secondary Radio Drawer. There are also some special options. Any Internal Option Boards with JU1, JU2, JU3, JU101, JU102 or JU103 jumpers must be correctly setup for the Radio Drawer they are installed in. The VRS is not compatible with any dual radio system. If the Siren/PA is installed, it must be cabled to the primary Radio Drawer. The Systems 9000 rear control head is not supported by the special dual radio RSS.
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